1998 , 21 2018  

 




20
50
100








-















" "

 

 

2017 30 307 . 1988 304 . 220 - 72% .

1988 . . . 1990 300 , 1993 136 . 1999 113 . 2000 . 2011 200 . 1991 60% . - 1941 .

11 , , . 33 , 26 , 25 . 2017 60 . 220 . . , . . 2016 40 .

10% 2016 21 . 12% 0,5 .

, . . 2017 118 . , 3,3 , 19% 2016 . 35% 2,7 . 56% , 16% .

, , . 700 ( 85% ) 250 (35% ).

20 . 40%. .

, e . , . , .

, . 2013 . , . , Johnson Matthey, Umicore  Heraeus.

, . . Umicore    , , , , , , , . , Umicore, .

, .

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IASP 374 77 . R&D Park . R&D Park 2016 , , . . . . . - GenerationS , 2017 . .

: [ kommersant.ru ]

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